Use of Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound in the Neurocritical Care Unit

Kalanuria A, Nyquist PA, Armonda RA, Razumovsky A. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2013;24(3):441-56


Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is a portable device that uses a handheld 2-MHz transducer. It is most commonly used in subarachnoid hemorrhage where cerebral blood flow velocities in major intracranial blood vessels are measured to detect vasospasm in the first 2 to 3 weeks. TCD is used to detect vasospasm in traumatic brain injury and post-tumor resection, measurement of cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular reactivity, diagnosis of acute arterial occlusions in stroke, screening for patent foramen ovale and monitoring of emboli. It can be used to detect abnormally high intracranial pressure and for confirmation of total cerebral circulatory arrest in brain death